Halibut
by C. R. (Bob) Hitz
(click to enlarge)


Lobster


Herring


Salmon


Solar Eclipse


Tlingit
Halibut Hook


Little Port Walter
Weir
by Don Gustafson
(click to enlarge)


NMFS Lab
Original painting
by Alden P. Stickney, 1993
(click to enlarge)


Baggage Tags
(click to enlarge)

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 Biography 

Bernard E. Skud

Former Director:
      BCF/NMFS Fisheries Lab, Boothbay Harbor, Maine
      International Pacific Halibut Commission, Seattle, WA.
      International North Pacific Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, BC

Click for Biography...

 
 Introduction 

The main purpose of this Website is to report on a little known collection of data by NMFS that spans some 40 years. The story begins in the 1930's when the U.S. fishery agency established a research station at Little Port Walter (LPW), Alaska to study pink salmon. A unique two-way weir was constructed at Sashin Creek to enumerate spawners and their progeny -- as they migrated to sea. The objective was to detemine which factors controlled the varying percentages of annual survival. Based on data from 1940-1955, a promising hypothesis stating that the size of spawners controlled the time of spawning which itself was correlated with the survival rate (Skud, 1958). In subsequent years, Merrell (1962), McNeil (1968) and Ellis (1969) confirmed the relationship and showed that the time accounted for 90% of the survival.rate for 25 years,. Skud (1973) summarized the "size -time-survival" hypothesis and presented supporting data from other sources in Alaska and British Columbia -- there has been no publication since that confirms or negates the "size-time-survival hypothesis".

Now for the rest of the story: The weir deteriorated in the late 1960's and a new method of estimating the abundance of fry was introduced, i.e. salmon nests were sampled with hydraulic pumps. Other changes have also occurred -- pink salmon from another river have been introduced into Sashin Creek, and sampling for fish size has been very limited in some years and not alwaus distributed over the entire spawning period -- the earliest spawners are larger and inadequate sampling could distort the mean size.

This problem led to another purpose for this website, which is to call attention to a few papers of mine that were not published in North America and, along with others now "out of print", that are not readily accessible on the Internet. None of my halibut papers are included on this website, as they are available in the "library" of the IPHC website website. Other agency contacts are identified by touching the acronyms (on the right) with the cursor.
(click to open the IPHC website)

 
 Papers 

Factors Regulating the Production of Pink Salmon
Anadromous fishes offer several advantages over marine species in the study of the relation between stock and recruitment because spawning is confined to... (click to open document)


Relation of Adult Pink Salmon Size to Time of Migration and Freshwater Survival
The two-year life span of the pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), is climaxed by spawning activities in the fall. The eggs, laid in gravel beds... (click to open document)


Length-Weight Relationship in Migrating Fry of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, Little Port Walter, Alaska  Copeia (3), 1955, 204-207
The spawning migration of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), at Sashin Creek, Little Port Walter, Alaska occurs during the months of August and September. Length measurements show that adult females... (click to open document)


Dominance in Fishes: The Relation Between Environment and Abundance
Marine fishery studies are replete with comparisons of environmental factors and population abundance or recruitment, and, recently, correlation matrices have been used to compare responses (coefficients) of different species... (click to open document)


Interactions of Pelagic Fishes and the Relation Between Environmental Factors and Abundance
"All correlations fail eventually." This facetious adage has been credited to Lionel A. Walford, but has been echoed by others who have examined the durability of correlations between the environment and abundance of fishes. My intent is to show that these "failures" should not be summarily dismissed on the assumption that the data were faulty, that the criteria for comparison were ill-founded, or the relation spurious. (click to open document)


Responses of Marine Organisms During the Solar Eclipse of July 1963
Biological and physical observations and measurements were made on the day before and on the day of a total eclipse of the sun, July 19-20, 1963. Totality occurred at 1745 hours (e.d.t.), and observations continued through... (click to open document)


The Effect of Fishing on Size Composition and Sex Ratio of Offshore Lobster Stocks
The initial effects of exploitation on marine stocks seldom have been thoroughly documented, because the stocks usually are not studied until a species has experienced a history of exploitation. The fishery for lobsters... (click to open document)


Herring Spawning Surveys In Southeastern Alaska
Aerial surveys to observe milt clouds produced by spawning herring in Southeastern Alaska waters hold promise as a method for assessing the extent of spawn deposition.... (click to open document)


Galveston Biological Laboratory Fishery Research, June 1960
The Gulf of Mexico fisheries are still expanding steadily. In 1959 the total catch exceeded one billion pounds… (click to open document)


Cooperative Halibut Research With USSR
The International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) announced the completion of a cooperative cruise with Soviet scientists.... (click to open document)

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